04 October 2010

Reciprocity Chronologically

聖人無常心,以百姓心為心。善者,吾善之;不善者,吾亦善之;德善。信者,吾信之;不信者,吾亦信之;德信。聖人在天下,歙歙為天下渾其心,百姓皆注其耳目,聖人皆孩之。The sage has no invariable mind of his own; he makes the mind of the people his mind.
To those who are good, I am good; and to those who are not good, I am also good; - and thus all get to be good. To those who are sincere, I am sincere; and to those who are not sincere, I am also sincere; - and thus all get to be sincere.
The sage has in the world an appearance of indecision, and keeps his mind in a state of indifference to all. The people all keep their eyes and ears directed to him, and he deals with them all as his children.
(Lao Tsu in the Tao Te Ching, 49. c.600 B.C.E.)

Οὐδενὶ τρόπῳ φαμὲν ἑκόντας ἀδικητέον εἶναι͵ ἢ τινὶ μὲν ἀδικητέον τρόπῳ τινὶ δὲ οὔ; ἢ οὐδαμῶς τό γε ἀδικεῖν οὔτε ἀγαθὸν οὔτε καλόν͵ ὡς πολλάκις ἡμῖν καὶ ἐν τῷ ἔμπροσθεν χρόνῳ ὡμολογήθη; [ὅπερ καὶ ἄρτι ἐλέγετο] ἢ πᾶσαι ἡμῖν ἐκεῖναι αἱ πρόσθεν ὁμολογίαι ἐν ταῖσδε ταῖς ὀλίγαις ἡμέραις ἐκκεχυμέναι εἰσίν͵ καὶ πάλαι͵ ὦ Κρίτων͵ ἄρα τηλικοίδε [γέροντες] ἄνδρες πρὸς ἀλλήλους σπουδῇ δια 49.b λεγόμενοι ἐλάθομεν ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς παίδων οὐδὲν διαφέροντες; ἢ παντὸς μᾶλλον οὕτως ἔχει ὥσπερ τότε ἐλέγετο ἡμῖν· εἴτε φασὶν οἱ πολλοὶ εἴτε μή͵ καὶ εἴτε δεῖ ἡμᾶς ἔτι τῶνδε χαλεπώτερα πάσχειν εἴτε καὶ πρᾳότερα͵ ὅμως τό γε ἀδικεῖν τῷ ἀδικοῦντι καὶ κακὸν καὶ αἰσχρὸν τυγχάνει ὂν παντὶ τρόπῳ; φαμὲν ἢ οὔAre we to say that we are never intentionally to do wrong, or that in one way we ought and in another way we ought not to do wrong, or is doing wrong always evil and dishonorable, as I was just now saying, and as has been already acknowledged by us? Are all our former admissions which were made within a few days to be thrown away? And have we, at our age, been earnestly discoursing with one another all our life long only to discover that we are no better than children? Or are we to rest assured, in spite of the opinion of the many, and in spite of consequences whether better or worse, of the truth of what was then said, that injustice is always an evil and dishonor to him who acts unjustly? Shall we affirm that?
(Socrates in Plato's Crito, 49c. c.500 C.E.)

לֹֽא־תִקֹּ֤ם וְלֹֽא־תִטֹּר֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י עַמֶּ֔ךָ וְאָֽהַבְתָּ֥ לְרֵעֲךָ֖ כָּמֹ֑וךָ אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה׃Love your neighbor as yourself: I am the Lord.
(Yahweh in the Hebrew Torah, Leviticus 19:18. c.450 B.C.E.)

Sabbe tasanti daṇaḍassa sabbe bhāyanti maccuno
Attānaṃ upamaṃ katvā na haneyya na ghātaye.
All shrink from flagellation,
And of death feel trepidation.
If we saw the correlation
To our parallel position,
We would stop all persecution
And, of creatures, violation.
(Gautama Buddha in the Pāli Dhammapada, X:1. c.450 B.C.E.)

子貢問曰:“有一言而可以終身行之者乎?”
子曰:“其恕乎!己所不欲,勿施於人。”
Zi Gong asked, saying, "Is there one word which may serve as a rule of practice for all one's life?"
The Master said, "Is not reciprocity such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others."
(Confucius in the Analects, XV:24. c.400 B.C.E.)

mohād adharmaṃ yaḥ kṛtvā punaḥ samanutapyate
manaḥsamādhisaṃyukto na sa seveta duṣkṛtam
yathā yathā manas tasya duṣkṛtaṃ karma garhate
tathā tathā śarīraṃ tu tenādharmeṇa mucyate
yadi vyāharate rājan viprāṇāṃ dharmavādinām
tato 'dharmakṛtāt kṣipram apavādāt pramucyate
When One injures another, the injured turns round and injures the injurer.
Similarly, when one cherishes another, that other cherishes the cherisher.
One should frame one's rule of conduct according to this.
I have told thee what Righteousness is even by this subtle way.
(Bṛhaspati in the Mahabharata, (Anusasana Parva:CXIII:3. c.300 B.C.E.)

και καθως θελετε ινα ποιωσιν υμιν οι ανθρωποι και υμεις ποιειτε αυτοις ομοιωςAnd as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise.
(Jesus in the Gospel of Luke, 6:31. c.80 C.E.)

وحتى أصابع اليدين هما على قدم المساواة ، وحتى البشر على قدم المساواة
واحد آخر. لا أحد لديه أي حق ، ولا أي تفضيل للمطالبة أكثر من
آخر. أنتم اخوة.
Even as the fingers of the two hands are equal, so are human beings equal to one another. No one has any right, nor any preference to claim over another. You are brothers.
(Muhammad in the Sunni Hadith, Farewell Sermon. 632 C.E.)

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